Scientific studies that show that cannabis helps with PTSD

Scientific studies that show cannabis can help with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been conducted in recent years. PTSD is an anxiety disorder caused by traumatic events, such as witnessing violence or experiencing a natural disaster. People who experience PTSD often have symptoms like nightmares, intrusive thoughts and flashbacks, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, hyperarousal and emotional numbing.


Cannabis has shown to be effective for managing symptoms of PTSD in scientific studies. The active ingredients in cannabis are called cannabinoids. There are two primary cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is known for its psychoactive effects while CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects but has therapeutic benefits instead. Studies suggest that both THC and CBD may be useful in treating PTSD symptoms due to their ability to reduce stress levels and regulate moods.

The way that people use cannabis for PTSD varies depending on the person’s individual needs. For instance, some people find it helpful to take small doses throughout the day while others prefer larger doses at night before bedtime so they can sleep better without having nightmares or intrusive thoughts associated with their trauma memories. There are different methods of using cannabis including smoking it or consuming edibles made from marijuana extracts such as oils or tinctures which may also provide relief from PTSD symptoms without producing strong psychoactive effects like smoking would do.

There is evidence that suggests that using cannabis can help manage certain types of mental health issues such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder although more research needs to be done before we know exactly how effective it is for this condition specifically and how safe long-term use might be for individuals who suffer from PTSD.

“Medical Cannabis and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Emerging Evidence” (2020), authors: Staci Gruber, M.D., Ph.D., et al.

A team of researchers led by Staci Gruber, M.D. Ph.D. Recently published a paper in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry titled “Medical Cannabis and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Emerging Evidence” (2020). The study conducted a systematic review of existing literature to assess the efficacy and safety of medical cannabis for treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The authors found that there is promising evidence to suggest that medical cannabis may be effective in reducing PTSD symptoms. This includes improved sleep quality, reduced anxiety, decreased intrusive thoughts, improved cognition, and better overall functioning. The study found no serious adverse events associated with medical cannabis use in patients with PTSD. However, it did caution against using high doses due to potential risks such as cognitive impairment or addiction potential.

This paper provides valuable insight into how medical cannabis may be beneficial for people living with PTSD. While further research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic effects on this population group, these results demonstrate that it could potentially provide relief from symptoms associated with the condition without any major risks or side effects.

“Cannabis Use in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” (2018), authors: Maritza Rubio-Aurioles, MD, et al.

Cannabis has been increasingly studied for its potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In 2018, Maritza Rubio-Aurioles and colleagues published a systematic review titled “Cannabis Use in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” which analyzed 16 studies that assessed the efficacy of cannabis in treating PTSD. The results showed that patients who used cannabis had significantly reduced levels of re-experiencing symptoms and improved overall functioning compared to those who did not use cannabis.

The authors found that the magnitude of improvement was greater among individuals who used higher doses of THC, but concluded that more research is needed to determine if this is an effective strategy for managing PTSD symptoms. They noted that there were no significant differences between those who received CBD alone or in combination with THC for PTSD symptom relief. However, further study is warranted to confirm these findings.

The evidence from this systematic review indicates that using medical cannabis may be beneficial for reducing some PTSD symptoms; however, it should only be considered as part of a comprehensive treatment plan developed by a healthcare professional. Further research into dosing regimens and potential interactions between other medications is necessary before any recommendations can be made about its use in clinical practice.

“Associations Between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: a Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis vs Tobacco Users” (2016), authors: Magdalena Cerda, PhD, et al.

In 2016, Magdalena Cerda and her colleagues conducted a longitudinal comparison study that examined associations between cannabis use and physical health problems in early midlife. The researchers used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to assess persistent cannabis users compared with tobacco users on physical health outcomes at age 40. Participants included 3,617 young adults who were ages 18-30 when they enrolled in the CARDIA study in 1985-1986. Cannabis and tobacco use were assessed every 5 years for up to 25 years.

The results of this longitudinal comparison found that persistent cannabis users had an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of conditions that increases one’s risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Persistent cannabis users had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), also known as “good” cholesterol than those who did not persistently use cannabis or tobacco. They experienced greater declines in HDL over time than nonusers or former marijuana smokers who stopped using prior to midlife.

Moreover, persistent marijuana smokers also experienced significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms than nonusers or former marijuana smokers who stopped using prior to midlife; however there was no difference between them on other mental health measures such as anxiety disorders or suicide attempts. This finding suggests that long term exposure to marijuana may be linked with negative consequences for mental health although further research is needed to better understand the relationship between these variables over time.

“Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” (2015), authors: Benjamin J. Kaplan, MD, et al.

In 2015, the medical journal The American Journal of Psychiatry published a systematic review and meta-analysis titled “Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” authored by Benjamin J. Kaplan, MD et al. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids are effective in treating post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The authors conducted an extensive literature search and identified eight randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of cannabinoids for PTSD symptom reduction. They found that when compared to placebo, there was a significant improvement in symptoms with cannabinoid treatment across all studies. They observed no serious adverse events associated with cannabinoid treatment. This suggests that cannabinoids may be an effective therapeutic option for those suffering from PTSD.

Despite these promising results, more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn regarding cannabinoid use as a treatment for PTSD. Future studies should focus on exploring different doses and formulations as well as potential long-term side effects associated with cannabinoid use in order to better inform clinical decisions about its safety and efficacy in treating this debilitating condition.

“The Endocannabinoid System and Stress Adaptation: A Novel Therapeutic Target for PTSD” (2014), authors: Joseph S. Pantano, Jr., MD, et al.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has become an increasingly relevant focus of research in the field of neuroscience. The ECS is a complex network of neuromodulators, receptors, and enzymes that play key roles in regulating physiological processes such as appetite, pain sensation, mood, memory formation, and stress adaptation. A growing body of evidence suggests that targeting the ECS may be beneficial for treating psychiatric disorders like PTSD.

In 2014, Pantano et al. Conducted a review of the current literature on the role of the ECS in modulating stress responses and its potential application to PTSD treatment. They found that animal studies have shown that pharmacological activation or inhibition of components within the ECS can affect behaviors associated with anxiety and fear extinction–two hallmarks of PTSD symptoms. Human studies suggest that individuals with PTSD have altered concentrations of certain endocannabinoids compared to healthy controls; thus suggesting there could be therapeutic value from manipulating these levels through cannabis-derived treatments.

Given this evidence linking disrupted endocannabinoid signaling with psychological trauma-related conditions such as PTSD, further research is needed to explore how manipulating this system could be used therapeutically for those suffering from mental health issues related to traumatic events or experiences. This could open up exciting new possibilities for improved treatment strategies for individuals struggling with difficult mental health issues related to traumatic events or experiences.

“Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders” (2013), authors: Esther Blessing, MD, et al.

The 2013 study by Blessing, et al. Titled \”Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders\”, is one of the earliest scientific studies on cannabidiol’s potential to treat anxiety disorders. The authors found that CBD had anxiolytic properties in animal models and human subjects with social anxiety disorder (SAD). They concluded that these findings suggest CBD has potential therapeutic value for SAD, PTSD, and other anxiety-related conditions.

In their review of existing literature, Blessing et al. Note that some cannabinoids have been reported to reduce symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, they note that further research is needed before any conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of cannabinoids in treating such conditions. They emphasize the importance of understanding the differences between cannabis use and medical treatment when considering its efficacy in treating mental health conditions.

Blessing et al.’S 2013 study provides evidence supporting the notion that cannabidiol may have therapeutic value in treating certain types of anxiety disorders including SAD, GAD, PD, OCD and PTSD. Further research into this area is necessary to fully understand how effective it can be used as a form of treatment for those suffering from mental health issues associated with these disorders.

“Cannabis Use Among Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” (2012), authors: Stephen R. Tippett, MD, et al.

Cannabis use among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in recent years. In 2012, a team of researchers from the University of California, San Diego and the VA Palo Alto Health Care System conducted a study to assess cannabis use among veterans with PTSD. The authors concluded that “the majority of veteran patients report using cannabis for symptom relief; however, there is limited evidence to support its efficacy”.

The study used self-report questionnaires to measure the prevalence of cannabis use and its impact on PTSD symptoms in 1,814 veteran participants. They found that overall 20% reported current or past year marijuana use and 8% reported daily or near-daily marijuana use. Cannabis was most commonly used as an aid to sleep (67%), relaxation (47%), pain relief (41%) and anxiety relief (37%). Notably, 30% stated they had received medical advice recommending they try cannabis for their PTSD symptoms.

Results also showed that although some participants did find it helpful in managing their symptoms, those who used more frequently were actually more likely to have higher levels of PTSD symptom severity compared to those who didn’t report any cannabis use at all. This suggests that despite initial perceived benefits experienced by users upon initiation, further studies are needed before making conclusive recommendations about therapeutic efficacy or safety regarding long-term usage for treating this condition.

“PTSD Symptom Reports of Patients Evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program” (2011), authors: Jacob M. Vigil, PhD, et al.

In 2011, Jacob M. Vigil, PhD and his team published the findings of their research evaluating PTSD symptom reports from patients enrolled in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program. Their study was conducted to determine whether cannabis could be an effective treatment for PTSD symptoms. The researchers found that all participants reported a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms after consuming medical cannabis. There were no adverse side effects associated with its use.

The results of this study suggest that medical cannabis can be a safe and effective treatment for PTSD symptoms when used under appropriate supervision and guidance by healthcare professionals. It is important to note that the majority of participants did not experience any psychoactive effects while using medical cannabis as a form of treatment. This suggests that it may provide relief without causing intoxication or impairment which are commonly associated with recreational marijuana use.

Vigil’s study provides compelling evidence that medical cannabis can be an effective alternative treatment option for those suffering from PTSD-related symptoms such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and flashbacks. While further studies are needed to confirm these findings, they offer hope to those who have struggled with conventional treatments but have yet to find relief through traditional therapies alone.

“Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Relieve After Smoked Cannabis in a Patient With Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report” (2010), authors: Julie Holland, MD, et al.

In 2010, a case report was published in the journal of Psychopharmacology that studied the effects of cannabis on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The study, authored by Julie Holland, MD et al. Included a single patient who had been suffering from chronic PTSD for over five years.

The results showed that after smoking cannabis, the patient reported an improvement in his PTSD symptoms and felt more relaxed overall. He noted a decrease in intrusive thoughts related to his trauma and improved sleep quality. This finding is supported by further research which suggests that THC has anxiolytic properties which can reduce anxiety levels associated with traumatic memories and flashbacks.

It is important to note that this case study only involved one individual and therefore cannot be generalized to other individuals with PTSD or used as evidence for any medical treatments related to PTSD. Nevertheless, it provides valuable insight into how cannabinoids may help relieve some of the symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.

“Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy” (2000), authors: Abrams DI, et al.

The paper “Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy” (2000), authored by Abrams DI, et al. Is one of the most influential studies on cannabis and its effects on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In it, the authors describe a large randomized clinical trial which demonstrated that marijuana was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in adult patients. Specifically, they found that marijuana use significantly reduced anxiety levels and improved overall quality of life for those with PTSD.

The authors concluded that marijuana could be used as an adjunct to traditional treatments for PTSD without any adverse effects. This was significant because prior to this study there had been little evidence that cannabis could effectively treat mental health disorders like PTSD. By providing evidence of efficacy and safety, this study helped change public opinion about marijuana’s potential medical benefits and opened up further research into its therapeutic uses.

In addition to highlighting the effectiveness of cannabis as a treatment option for PTSD sufferers, the paper also explored some potential risks associated with its use. While noting that there were no serious side effects reported in their sample group, they did acknowledge possible long-term impacts such as memory loss or impaired cognitive functioning if users abused high doses over prolonged periods of time. As such, they cautioned against recreational usage and recommended further research into how different strains may affect individuals differently.

“Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy” provided a comprehensive review of existing literature at the time regarding medical uses for cannabis and presented important findings from their own clinical trial which showed promising results for treating PTSD using marijuana.

“Smoked Marijuana as a Cause of Lung Injury” (1999), authors: Tashkin DP, et al.

In 1999, a study was published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine by authors Tashkin et al. That evaluated the effects of smoked marijuana on lung injury. The study used data from the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) project, which collected information from subjects over time. Results showed that subjects who had smoked marijuana for more than 20 years experienced an increased risk for developing chronic bronchitis as well as decreased pulmonary function tests compared to non-smokers. This association was found to be dose-dependent: those with higher levels of exposure had greater risks for both outcomes.

The authors noted that further research is needed to determine whether these results are specific to cannabis smoke or due to other factors such as tobacco use or environmental pollutants. It should also be considered if there may be different health effects depending on how marijuana is consumed (e.g. smoking versus vaporizing). The long-term implications need to be explored regarding whether these associations persist after cessation of use and if so, what protective measures can help reduce any potential harms associated with smoking cannabis.

“Cannabis and Psychosis/Schizophrenia: Human Studies” (1998), authors: Zuardi AW, et al.

In 1998, Zuardi AW et al. Conducted a study to evaluate the effects of cannabis on psychotic symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and other related mental disorders. The authors studied 24 subjects with chronic psychosis or schizophrenia that were not currently taking antipsychotic medications. Subjects were randomly assigned to either receive a single dose of THC (the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis) or placebo. After one hour, those who had taken the THC reported significantly lower levels of hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia compared to those given the placebo.

The study also found that while there was an increase in positive psychotic symptoms after taking THC, these effects did not persist over time and dissipated within four hours post-dosing. This short-term increase did not appear to be clinically significant as none of the participants experienced any adverse reactions during or following treatment. This suggests that while acute doses of cannabis may induce transient changes in psychotic symptoms, long-term use is unlikely to lead to lasting increases in positive symptom severity for patients with schizophrenia or related disorders.

Moreover, when comparing baseline measures before administration of THC/placebo against follow up assessments at two weeks post-treatment period showed no significant differences between groups on any measure indicating that there was no worsening effect associated with using cannabis as part of treatment regimen for patients suffering from psychosis or schizophrenia. These findings suggest that medical marijuana could potentially offer some benefit for those living with psychiatric illnesses without causing further harm through increased risk for negative outcomes such as exacerbation of psychotic symptoms over time.

“The Effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Sleep Patterns” (1997), authors: Carlini EA, et al.

The 1997 study by Carlini et al. Evaluated the effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on human sleep patterns. The authors used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design with 20 healthy volunteers between 21 and 35 years old to determine if THC had any effect on sleep. The participants were administered either a single dose of THC or placebo in capsule form one hour before bedtime.

The results showed that after ingestion of THC, participants experienced an increase in total sleep time compared to those who took the placebo. There was also an increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) which is associated with restorative processes such as memory consolidation and healing from physical trauma or illness. There was no significant difference between the two groups when it came to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which is associated with dreaming and creativity.

These findings suggest that THC may have potential therapeutic benefits for individuals suffering from PTSD due to its ability to induce deep and restful sleep without interfering with REM stages of slumber. However, further research should be conducted into this area as more information is needed about how cannabis affects different types of people over extended periods of time before making any definitive conclusions about its efficacy for treating PTSD symptoms related to insomnia or other sleep disturbances.

“Cannabis Use and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents and Young Adults” (1995), authors: Kandel DB, et al.

The study “Cannabis Use and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents and Young Adults” (1995) was conducted by Kandel DB, et al. To explore the relationship between cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in adolescents and young adults. The researchers collected data from a longitudinal survey of 1,453 New York City high school students from grades 8 through 12. They found that early cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance, an increased risk of substance use disorder (SUD), more frequent physical fighting, delinquent behavior such as shoplifting or stealing cars, higher levels of social alienation, and lower levels of family cohesion. They concluded that those who used cannabis were at greater risk for developing SUDs than those who did not.

The authors suggested that cannabis use may be linked to increased risks for both physical health problems such as respiratory illness or addiction; psychological disorders like anxiety or depression; poor decision-making skills; impaired learning abilities; difficulties with impulse control; lowered self-esteem; decreased motivation; problems forming meaningful relationships; difficulty managing stressors in life; altered perception of reality and time distortion effects on attention span and memory formation. In addition to these risks associated with cannabis use during adolescence, the authors also noted that there could be long-term implications for future functioning including reduced educational attainment due to cognitive impairments caused by chronic exposure to THC throughout development.

The authors suggest that further research is needed on how best to address this issue since it has been shown repeatedly in different studies that early onset marijuana users are more likely to experience adverse outcomes later in life compared to non-users or late onset users when considering factors such as mental health issues related impairment or difficulty forming meaningful relationships.

“Effects of Cannabinoids on Behavioral Measures of Anxiety in Animals” (1994), authors: Parker LA, et al.

In 1994, Parker LA and colleagues conducted a study to examine the effects of cannabinoids on behavioral measures of anxiety in animals. The study involved administering two different doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one low dose and one high dose, to rats. The researchers then monitored the rats’ behavior during an elevated plus maze test, which is commonly used as an indicator of animal anxiety levels.

The results showed that both doses produced anxiolytic effects in the rats compared to control groups who did not receive THC. Specifically, the high dose group displayed reduced time spent in open arms and increased risk assessment behaviors compared to controls. Lower dose THC resulted in fewer rearing episodes than those observed with higher doses or control groups. These findings indicate that cannabinoids have potential anxiolytic properties when administered at appropriate dosages and may be useful for treating symptoms associated with PTSD.

“Effectiveness of Cannabinoids in the Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Neuropathic Pain” (1993), authors: Portenoy RK, et al.

The research conducted by Portenoy et al. (1993) on the effectiveness of cannabinoids in the management of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain was groundbreaking and helped to inform subsequent studies on cannabis-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In their study, the authors investigated whether or not marijuana could reduce pain and improve quality of life among patients with severe neuropathy. They found that cannabis significantly reduced subjective ratings of pain intensity as well as improved overall physical functioning. Moreover, participants reported improved sleep duration and greater ability to perform daily activities after treatment with cannabinoid compounds.

To further evaluate the effects of cannabis-based treatments for PTSD, researchers have studied how its use affects brain activity patterns associated with fear responses in individuals suffering from this condition. Studies suggest that cannabinoid compounds can disrupt amygdala-dependent neural processing related to fear conditioning and extinction learning processes (Lutz et al. 2017; Rabinak et al. 2018). This suggests that cannabinoids may be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms associated with PTSD by inhibiting overactivation of fear circuits in the brain.

There is evidence to suggest that THC may help to regulate hyperarousal symptoms common among those living with PTSD such as insomnia, intrusive thoughts, nightmares, startle reactions, irritability, and panic attacks (Rabinak et al. 2018). A recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that a single dose of inhaled THC led to significant reductions in self-reported arousal levels compared to placebo among individuals diagnosed with PTSD (Vogt & Nogueira de Souza Ferreira Neto 2020). These findings provide further support for the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoids for managing both physical and psychological symptoms related to PTSD.

“Cannabis and Psychopathology” (1992), authors: Hall W, et al.

In 1992, a group of researchers from the Department of Psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine published their findings in the journal “Psychopharmacology”, titled “Cannabis and Psychopathology: A Cross-Sectional Study”. In this study, Hall et al. Examined the potential effects of cannabis on psychiatric symptoms in a sample population comprised of individuals with PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The authors concluded that there was a strong correlation between cannabis use and lower levels of psychopathology among those who had PTSD.

The authors suggest that the observed association could be due to either an indirect effect – such as reduction in anxiety or depression – or it could be direct pharmacological action on dopamine pathways in the brain responsible for fear processing and emotion regulation. They noted that while marijuana may have beneficial effects on some aspects of mental health functioning, more research is needed to understand its role in treating various psychological disorders such as PTSD.

Hall et al.’S findings were further supported by other studies which also found positive associations between cannabis use and decreased severity of posttraumatic symptoms. For example, one study conducted by Rosenstein et al. Published in 1995, reported reductions in anxiety levels associated with marijuana use among veterans suffering from chronic PTSD. Another study conducted by Greer et al. Published in 2000, reported reduced symptoms associated with social phobia after smoking marijuana compared to placebo treatments given to subjects with social phobia disorder. Taken together these studies provide evidence for potential therapeutic benefits associated with cannabis when used to treat certain psychiatric conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder.

“Clinical Aspects of Cannabis Tolerance and Dependence” (1991), authors: Jones RT, et al.

The study conducted by Jones et al. (1991) examined the clinical aspects of cannabis tolerance and dependence in a sample of 10 individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study participants were assessed on their level of cannabis use, frequency of usage, duration of abstinence from marijuana, and overall experience with using cannabis as a form of treatment for PTSD. Results revealed that all participants developed some degree of tolerance to marijuana, however, there was no significant difference between those who used it more frequently or for longer periods when compared to those who did not. None of the participants experienced any severe physical withdrawal symptoms when they discontinued using cannabis; rather they reported mild effects such as insomnia and decreased appetite.

Interestingly, two out of the ten participants reported feeling increased anxiety upon discontinuation; however this effect seemed to be transient and reversed itself within days without further intervention. Seven out of the ten patients found relief from their PTSD symptoms while using cannabis either on its own or in combination with other forms therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy or psychotherapy. Four out five people also reported improved social functioning while under the influence which was attributed to better self-confidence due to symptom relief. Overall these findings suggest that there may be potential therapeutic benefits associated with short term use Cannabis in individuals suffering from PTSD but more research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding safety and efficacy in this population group.

“Cannabis Use and Psychological Functioning” (1990), authors: Pope HG Jr, et al.

Cannabis use has been linked to a variety of psychological functioning and behavior. In the study \”Cannabis Use and Psychological Functioning\” (1990), authors Pope HG Jr, et al examined the effects of cannabis on mental health among 616 males aged 18-35 years old. The researchers found that those who used cannabis regularly had higher levels of anxiety, depression, mania, paranoia, social withdrawal and aggression compared to non-users. Those with more frequent or longer periods of marijuana use were significantly more likely to have poorer mental health outcomes than occasional users.

The results also suggested an association between cannabis use and impaired memory functioning in this population. Those who reported using cannabis regularly showed greater deficits in their ability to recall words from lists compared to non-users or infrequent users. It was observed that participants’ cognitive performance decreased with increased frequency of marijuana use over time.

In terms of personality traits associated with regular cannabis users, the study concluded that they tended to be less conscientiousness than their peers who did not smoke pot regularly; however they were also found to be more open-minded and creative individuals overall when controlling for age and other factors like alcohol consumption or family history of substance abuse. This suggests that while there may be some potential risks associated with long term marijuana use on mental health outcomes – such as anxiety and depression – its impact on certain personality traits may actually be beneficial in certain contexts.

“Psychiatric Aspects of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults” (1989), authors: Anthony JC, et al.

In 1989, Anthony JC and his colleagues conducted a study that examined the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use in adolescents and young adults. The researchers found that adolescent users were more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression, impulsivity and other psychological disorders than non-users. The authors noted that regular cannabis users experienced more frequent episodes of psychosis compared to non-users.

The authors also observed a higher risk for suicide attempts among cannabis users when compared to those who abstained from using it. They concluded that cannabis use had a direct association with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses later in life. These individuals reported significantly lower levels of well-being compared to their peers who did not use the drug.

Moreover, Anthony JC et al (1989) determined that early exposure to cannabis was associated with an increased likelihood of developing substance dependence later on in life as well as greater psychological distress at baseline assessment periods. They suggested further research into this area in order to better understand how different doses affect the development of mental health problems over time.

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